# Data Analysis

## Beam Monitor

ImpactX provides a zero-sized beam monitor element that can be placed in lattices to output the particle beam at multiple positions in a lattice. Output is written in the standardized, open particle-mesh data schema (openPMD) and is compatible with many codes and data analysis frameworks.

For data analysis of openPMD data, see examples of many supported tools, Python libraries and frameworks. Exporting data to ASCII is possible, too.

See also WarpX’ documentation on openPMD.

### Additional Beam Attributes

We add the following additional attributes on the openPMD `beam`

species at the monitor position.

Reference particle:

`beta_ref`

reference particle normalized velocity \(\beta = v/c\)`gamma_ref`

reference particle Lorentz factor \(\gamma = 1/\sqrt{1-\beta^2}\)`s_ref`

integrated orbit path length, in meters`x_ref`

horizontal position x, in meters`y_ref`

vertical position y, in meters`z_ref`

longitudinal position z, in meters`t_ref`

clock time * c in meters`px_ref`

momentum in x, normalized to mass*c, \(p_x = \gamma \beta_x\)`py_ref`

momentum in y, normalized to mass*c, \(p_y = \gamma \beta_y\)`pz_ref`

momentum in z, normalized to mass*c, \(p_z = \gamma \beta_z\)`pt_ref`

energy, normalized by rest energy, \(p_t = -\gamma\)`mass`

reference rest mass, in kg`charge`

reference charge, in C

Example to print the integrated orbit path length `s`

at each beam monitor position:

```
import openpmd_api as io
series = io.Series("diags/openPMD/monitor.h5", io.Access.read_only)
for k_i, i in series.iterations.items():
beam = i.particles["beam"]
s_ref = beam.get_attribute("s_ref")
print(f"step {k_i:>3}: s_ref={s_ref}")
```

## Reduced Beam Characteristics

ImpactX calculates reduced beam characteristics like averaged positions, momenta, beam emittances and Courant-Snyder (Twiss) parameters during runtime.
These quantities are calculated before, after, and during each step of the simulation.
If `diag.slice_step_diagnostics`

is enabled, they will also be calculated during each slice of each beamline element.

The code writes out the values in an ASCII file prefixed `reduced_beam_characteristics`

containing the follow columns:

`step`

Iteration within the simulation

`s`

,`ref_beta_gamma`

Reference particle coordinate

`s`

(unit: meter) and relativistic momentum normalized by the particle mass and the speed of light (unit: dimensionless)

`x_mean/min/max`

,`y_mean/min/max`

,`t_mean/min/max`

Average / minimum / maximum beam particle position in the dimensions of

`x`

,`y`

(transverse coordinates, unit: meter), and`t`

(normalized time difference \(ct\), unit: meter)

`sig_x`

,`sig_y`

,`sig_t`

RMS of the average beam particle positions (unit: meter)

`px_mean/min/max`

,`py_mean/min/max`

,`pt_mean/min/max`

Average / minimum / maximum beam momenta normalized by reference particle momentum (unit: dimensionless, radians for transverse momenta)

`sig_px`

,`sig_py`

,`sig_pt`

RMS of the average beam momenta (energy difference for

`pt`

) (unit: dimensionless)

`emittance_x`

,`emittance_y`

,`emittance_t`

Normalized beam emittance (unit: meter)

`alpha_x`

,`alpha_y`

,`alpha_t`

Courant-Snyder (Twiss) alpha (unit: dimensionless)

`beta_x`

,`beta_y`

,`beta_t`

Courant-Snyder (Twiss) beta (unit: meter)

`charge`

Cumulated beam charge (unit: Coulomb)